ISSN 2096-2533


CN 42-1881/F


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能源转型背景下欧美关键矿产战略与中国应对策略

发布时间:2023-12-29作者:张宇宁 丁玎 王克浏览次数:53

摘要:净零排放目标下,关键矿产供应状态将显著影响全球能源安全格局与能源转型进程。对此,欧美经济体正加快推进清洁能源-关键矿产战略,强调矿物供应链的多元化和“去中国化”,我国资源安全将面临全方位挑战。本文发现,欧美逐步形成了从顶层战略制定、评估方法设计、关键清单更新到跨部门政策支持的关键矿物战略体系,具有系统性强、延续度高的特征。对内,欧美重点在地质勘探、冶炼能力、循环经济等方面加强一次和二次供应能力建设,以减少对我国供应产能的依赖;对外,通过加强双边资源外交、构建多边原材料俱乐部等形式深化全球矿产供应链合作,但各经济体的本土政策与对外协议缺乏协调性,导致欧美在合作初期就产生了深层次的摩擦矛盾。面对欧美发起的新一轮关键矿产供应链“竞争”,我国应保持战略定力、以我为主,将资源安全、能源安全和供应链安全纳入到国家整体安全中统筹协调。为此,建议在顶层设计上制定具有中国特色的关键矿产战略,国内行动上应加强需求侧预期管理和供应侧能力建设,对外合作上可深化资源外交布局并积极参与国际规则制定。

关键词:清洁能源;关键矿产;资源安全;供应链战略

 

Critical Minerals Strategies in the Occident Admist Energy Transformation and China’s Response

Zhang Yuning, Ding Ding, Wang Ke

Abstract: Under the net-zero emission target, the supply of critical minerals will significantly affect the energy security pattern and energy transition process worldwide. Economies like Europe and the United States are accelerating the establishment of the clean energy and critical minerals strategy, emphasizing the diversification and de-Sinicization in their mineral supply chain. Resource security in China is under extensive challenges. This research finds that Europe and the United States have formed a strategic system for critical minerals ranging from top-level strategy formulation, assessment method design, and list update for critical minerals to cross-departmental cooperation for policy design, and all those actions are characterized by solid systematicness and high continuity. For local actions, Europe and the United States focus on strengthening primary and secondary supply capacity through geological exploration, smelting and processing capacity, establishing a circular economy, and other aspects to reduce dependence on China. For global actions, they encourage further global cooperation by strengthening bilateral resource diplomacy and building a multilateral raw material club to promote mineral supply chain cooperation. However, deep friction and contradictions between Europe and the United States in the early stages of cooperation resulted from the need for more coordination between each economy's local policies and external agreements. In the face of a new round of competition in the supply chain of critical minerals initiated by Europe and the United States, China should maintain well-considered strategies and integrate resource, energy, and supply chain security into national security from the perspective of itself. This research recommends that a strategic system should be established, including designing the top-level of the critical minerals strategy considering the specific situation in China, strengthening domestic actions to manage market demand and expectations, and building stable and robust supply capabilities, as well as deepening the global resource diplomacy and actively participating in the formulation of international rules.

Keywords: Clean Energy; Critical Minerals; Resource Security; Supply Chain Strategy


全文:能源转型背景下欧美关键矿产战略与中国应对策略.pdf