ISSN 2096-2533

CN 42-1881/F



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发布时间:2023-12-29作者:张宇宁 丁玎 王克浏览次数:53




Critical Minerals Strategies in the Occident Admist Energy Transformation and China’s Response

Zhang Yuning, Ding Ding, Wang Ke

Abstract: Under the net-zero emission target, the supply of critical minerals will significantly affect the energy security pattern and energy transition process worldwide. Economies like Europe and the United States are accelerating the establishment of the clean energy and critical minerals strategy, emphasizing the diversification and de-Sinicization in their mineral supply chain. Resource security in China is under extensive challenges. This research finds that Europe and the United States have formed a strategic system for critical minerals ranging from top-level strategy formulation, assessment method design, and list update for critical minerals to cross-departmental cooperation for policy design, and all those actions are characterized by solid systematicness and high continuity. For local actions, Europe and the United States focus on strengthening primary and secondary supply capacity through geological exploration, smelting and processing capacity, establishing a circular economy, and other aspects to reduce dependence on China. For global actions, they encourage further global cooperation by strengthening bilateral resource diplomacy and building a multilateral raw material club to promote mineral supply chain cooperation. However, deep friction and contradictions between Europe and the United States in the early stages of cooperation resulted from the need for more coordination between each economy's local policies and external agreements. In the face of a new round of competition in the supply chain of critical minerals initiated by Europe and the United States, China should maintain well-considered strategies and integrate resource, energy, and supply chain security into national security from the perspective of itself. This research recommends that a strategic system should be established, including designing the top-level of the critical minerals strategy considering the specific situation in China, strengthening domestic actions to manage market demand and expectations, and building stable and robust supply capabilities, as well as deepening the global resource diplomacy and actively participating in the formulation of international rules.

Keywords: Clean Energy; Critical Minerals; Resource Security; Supply Chain Strategy